The Common Parameters
rollout sets parameters common to all renderers.
To set the size of the image, do one
of the following:
- In the Output Size group, click one of
the preset resolution buttons.
- In the Output Size group, choose one
of the pre-formatted film or video formats from the drop-down list.
- In the Output Size group, choose Custom
from the drop-down list, and then adjust the Width, Height, and
Aspect Ratio values manually.
images render much more quickly. For example, you can use 320 x
240 to render draft images, then change to a larger size for your
To save the rendered still image in a
- In the Render Output group, click Files.
- In the file dialog, specify a name and
a type for the image file, and then click OK.
The Save File toggle turns on.
You can later turn off Save File if you want
only to view the rendering on screen.
NoteThe file dialog has a Setup button. This
displays a subdialog that lets you choose options specific to the
file type you are saving to.
To alter the pixel aspect ratio:
- In the Output Size group of the Render
Setup dialog Common
panel Common Parameters
rollout, adjust the Pixel Aspect setting to fit the requirements of
your output device.
The Image Aspect field
updates to show the aspect ratio of the rendered output.
If you alter the pixel aspect ratio but also
render to a window or a file, the rendered image might appear distorted.
To speed up rendering time for the purpose
of a test (or draft) rendering:
- In the Options group of the Common Parameters
panel, turn on Area Lights/Shadows As Points.
- Set any other parameters and click Render.
All area and linear lights in the scene are
treated as point lights during the rendering. This reduces rendering
time, however some quality is lost. When you are ready to render
at high quality, you can simply turn off Area Lights/Shadows As
Points and render again.
not affected by the Area Lights/Shadows As Points toggle, as area
lights do not have a significant effect on the performance of a
Time Output group
Select which frames you
want to render.
- Active Time Segment
All the frames between and
including the two numbers you specify.
Nonsequential frames separated
by commas (for example, 2,5) or ranges of frames, separated by hyphens
(for example, 0-5).
- File Number BaseSpecifies
the base file number, from which the file name will increment. Range=
-99,999 to 99,999. Available only for Active Time Segment and Range
- Every Nth frameRegular
sample of frames. For example, type 8 to render every 8th frame.
Available only for Active Time Segment and Range output.
For example, if the Range
of frames is set to 0-3, Every Nth Frame is 1, and the File Number
Base is 15, the output files are file0015, file0016, file0017, file0018.
You can specify a negative
number base, as well. For example, if you're rendering frames 50-55,
and set the File Number Base to -50, the result is file-050, file-051, file-052, file-053, file-054, file-055.
If you begin render
a range of frames, but haven't assigned a file in which to save the
animation (using the
), an alert box appears to warn
you about this. Rendering animations can take a long time, and usually
it doesn't make sense to render a range without saving all frames
to a file.
Output Size group
Select one of the predefined
sizes or enter another size in the Width and Height fields (in pixels).
These controls affect the image's
- Drop-down list
The Output Size drop-down
list lets you choose from several standard film and video resolutions
and aspect ratios. Choose one of these formats, or leave it set
to Custom to use the other controls in the Output Size group. These
are the options you can choose from on the list:
- 35mm 1.316:1 Full Aperture (cine)
- 35mm 1.37:1 Academy (cine)
- 35mm 1.66:1 (cine)
- 35mm 1.75:1 (cine)
- 35mm 1.85:1 (cine)
- 35 MM Anamorphic (2.35:1)
- 35 MM Anamorphic (2.35:1) (Squeezed)
- 70mm Panavision (cine)
- 70mm IMAX (cine)
- 35mm (24mm X 36mm) (slide)
- 6cm X 6cm (2 1/4" X 2 1/4") (slide)
- 4" X 5" or 8" X 10" (slide)
- NTSC D-1 (video)
- NTSC DV (video)
- PAL (video)
- PAL DV (video)
- HDTV (video)
NoteThe values of the
Image Aspect and Width and Height buttons can change, depending
on which output format you select from this list.
- Aperture Width (mm)
Lets you specify an aperture
width for the camera that creates the rendered output. Changing
this value changes the camera's Lens value. This affects the relationship
between the Lens and the FOV values, but it doesn't change the camera's
view of the scene.
For example, if you have
a Lens setting of 43.0 mm, and you change the Aperture Width from
36 to 50, when you close the Render Setup dialog (or render), the
camera Lens spinner has changed to 59.722, but the scene still looks
the same in the viewport and the rendering. If you use one of the
preset formats rather than Custom, the aperture width is determined
by the format, and this control is replaced by a text display.
- Width and Height
Let you set the resolution of
the output image by specifying the width and the height of the image,
in pixels. With Custom format, you can set these two spinners independently.
With any other format, the two spinners are locked to the specified
aspect ratio, so adjusting one alters the other. The maximum width
and height is 32,768 x 32,768 pixels.
- Preset resolution buttons (320x240, 640x480,
and so on)
Click one of these buttons
to choose a preset resolution. You can customize these buttons:
right-click a button to display the
Preset dialog, which lets you change the
resolution specified by the button.
- Image Aspect
Lets you set the aspect ratio
of the image. Changing this value changes the Height value to maintain
the correct dimensions for the active resolution. When you use a
standard format rather than Custom, you can't change the aspect
ratio, and this control is replaced by a text display.
In 3ds Max, the Image Aspect
value is always expressed as a multiplier value. In written descriptions
of film and video, often aspect ratio is also described as a ratio.
For example, 1.33333 (the default Custom aspect ratio) is often
expressed as 4:3. This is the standard aspect ratio for broadcast
when letterboxing is not used. (Letterboxing shows the full width
of a wide-screen film format, framed by black regions above and below.)
using a custom output size, the lock button to the left of Image Aspect
locks the aspect ratio. When it is on, the Image Aspect spinner
is replaced by a label, and the Width and Height spinners are locked
to each other; adjusting one alters the other to maintain the aspect-ratio
value. In addition, when the aspect ratio is
locked, altering the Pixel Aspect value alters the Height value
to maintain the aspect-ratio value.
NoteIn viewports, the
camera's cone changes to reflect the image aspect ratio you set
in the Render Setup dialog. This change takes place when you exit
the Render Setup dialog.
- Pixel Aspect
Sets the aspect ratio
of the pixels for display on another device. The image might look
squashed on your display but will display correctly on the device
with differently shaped pixels. If you use one of the standard formats
rather than Custom, you can't change the pixel aspect ratio and
this control is disabled.
lock button to the left of Pixel Aspect locks the pixel-aspect ratio. When
it is on, the Pixel Aspect spinner is replaced by a label, and you
can't change the value. This button is available only with the Custom
Images with different
pixel aspects appear stretched or squashed on a monitor with square pixels.
the pixel aspect ratio is 0.9. If you are creating 16:9 (0.778) anamorphic
images for NTSC, the pixel aspect ratio should be 1.184. (As in
the previous discussion of Image Aspect, this assumes the image is
Renders any applied atmospheric
effects, such as volume fog, when turned on.
Renders any applied rendering
effects, such as Blur, when turned on.
Renders any applied displacement mapping.
- Video Color Check
Checks for pixel colors that
are beyond the safe
and flags them or modifies them to acceptable values.
By default, "unsafe"
colors render as black pixels. You can change the color check display
by using the
panel of the
- Render to Fields
Renders to video
than frames when creating animations for video.
- Render Hidden Geometry
Renders all geometric objects
in the scene, even if they are hidden.
- Area Lights/Shadows as Points
Renders all area lights
or shadows as if they were emitted from point objects, speeding
up rendering time.
When mental ray is the
active renderer, this switch is also available on the Rendered Frame
Window lower panel
as the leftmost position of the
Soft Shadows Precision slider.
Alternatively, you can use the slider to adjust soft shadows globally,
so that you can still see soft shadows while speeding up rendering.
TipThis option is useful
for draft renderings, as point lights render much faster than area
not affected by this toggle, as area lights do not have a significant
effect on the performance of a radiosity solution.
- Force 2-Sided
2-Sided rendering renders both
sides of all faces. Usually, you'll want to keep this option off
to speed rendering time. You may want to turn it on if you need
to render the inside as well as the outside of objects, or if you've
imported complex geometry in which the face normals are not properly unified.
- Super Black
Black rendering limits the darkness of
rendered geometry for video compositing. Leave off unless you're
sure you need it.
Advanced Lighting group
- Use Advanced Lighting
- Compute Advanced Lighting When Required
When on, 3ds Max computes
radiosity when required on a per-frame basis.
Normally, when rendering
a series of frames, 3ds Max calculates radiosity only for the
first frame. If, in an animation, it might be necessary to recalculate the
advanced lighting in subsequent frames, turn this option on. For
example, a brightly painted door might open and affect the coloring of
a nearby white wall, in which case the advanced lighting should
Bitmap Proxies group
Displays whether 3ds Max is
using full-resolution maps or bitmap proxies for rendering. To change
this setting, click the Setup button.
Render Output group
- Save File
When on, 3ds Max saves
the rendered image or animation to disk when you render. Save File is
available only after you specify the output file using the Files button.
Output File dialog, which lets you specify
the output file name, format, and location.
You can render to any
of the still or animated
file formats that are writable.
If you render multiple
frames to a still-image file format, the renderer renders individual
frame files and appends sequence numbers to each file name. You
can control this with the
Number Base setting.
- Put Image File List(s) in Output Path(s)
Turn on to create an
sequence (IMSQ) file, and save it in the
same directory as the rendering. Default=off.
3ds Max creates one
IMSQ file (or IFL file) per
element. The files are created when you
click Render or Create now. They are generated before the actual rendering.
Image sequence files
can be created by the following kinds of rendering:
- The Render Setup dialog
- The Render command
- Batch rendering
- Command-line rendering
- MAXScript rendering
- ActiveShade rendering
They are not created
by the following kinds of rendering:
- Rendering to textures
- Video Post rendering
- Rendering a panorama
- Create Now
Click to create the image sequence
file “by hand.” You must first choose an output file for the rendering itself.
- [image sequence file type]
Choose either of the following:
- Use Device
Sends the rendered output
to a device such as a video recorder. First click the Devices button
to specify the device, for which an appropriate driver must already
- Rendered Frame Window
- Net Render
- Skip Existing Images
When activated and Save File
is on, the renderer will skip images in a sequence that have already
been rendered to disk.