3ds Max supplies a number of parametric window and door objects that you can place into wall openings to add realism to an architectural model. These objects let you control details like trim and panel fill in your model.
When you create a new door or window, you must select four points in the scene that define the size and orientation of the rectangle that will be the door or window. You may find it easier to select these points in a given sequence, depending on your scene and views of the scene.
The width and orientation of the door/window is always defined by the first mouse click and subsequent mouse drag. Depending on the creation method you use, either the height or depth of the object is defined next.
If you have no object snaps set and are working in a Perspective or User Viewport, using the Width/Depth/Height Creation Method creates an upright Door or Window. The Width/Height/Depth Creation Method creates the object as if it were lying on its side.
The Allow Non-vertical Jambs toggle is useful for creating doors or windows that do not fit in a vertical plane, such as a skylight window in a sloping roof. By default, this toggle is off, making the third point in the creation sequence either directly above (Width/Height/Depth) or on the same horizontal plane (Width/Depth/Height) with the second point.
When you turn on Allow Non-vertical Jambs, the third point in the creation sequence falls wherever you choose and the fourth point is added by 3ds Max. Its offset from the plane is determined by the first three points.
Using the Width/Height/Depth Creation Method in Perspective and User viewports with Allow Non-vertical Jambs off can be an efficient way to create doors and windows with Object Snaps. However, it can also be confusing at first. Keep in mind that the third point you define, the Height, is interpreted as a point on the home grid until you indicate a point higher or lower than the grid. If you are using an Object Snap setting, 3ds Max might not know you mean a point off the grid unless you bring the cursor in proximity to a nonplanar point to which it can snap.
There are additional parameters specific to each door and window type that control overall dimension parameters, as well as detailed parameters for sub-object components such as mullions, trim, and panels within leaves. See and for more information on these parameters.
3ds Max contains four types of stair objects: , with an intermediate landing, with a landing at the bend in the stair, and with no intermediate landing. A complementary Railing object can be used to create any number of handrail designs that follow along a spline path.
Use the Railing button on the Create panel in the to produce railing objects. Railing components include rails, posts, and fencing. Fencing includes pickets (balusters) or solid-filled material (such as glass or wood strips).
You can create a railing in two ways: specify the orientation and height of the railing, or pick a spline path and apply the railing to that path. The spline path with a railing is called a rail path. Later, if you edit the rail path, the Railing object automatically updates to follow the changes you make. Rail paths can occupy three-dimensional space.
When you create the lower rails, posts, and fencing components of a Railing object, you use a special version of the Spacing Tool to specify the spacing of those components. 3ds Max displays the Spacing Tool dialog for each railing component: Lower Rail, Post Spacing, or Picket Spacing. For more information on the Spacing Tool, see .
When you create two wall segments that meet at a corner, 3ds Max removes any duplicate geometry. This “cleaning up” of the corners might involve trimming. 3ds Max cleans up only the first two wall segments of a corner, not other wall segments that might share the corner. 3ds Max does not clean up intersections.
You can edit the segments of a wall using sub-object selection mode on the Modify panel. For example, you can define a wall’s height profile. 3ds Max moves the active grid to the plane of the wall you’re editing. This allows you to snap to the profile vertices in the plane of the wall.
If you move, scale, or rotate the wall object, the linked door and window moves, scales, or rotates along with the wall. If you move the linked door or window along the wall, using the door or window's Local coordinate system and activating Restrict to XY Plane in the , the opening will follow. Also, if you change a door or window's overall width and height in the Modify panel, the hole will reflect those changes.
If you create a room by ending a segment at the end of another segment of the same wall object, 3ds Max displays the Weld Point dialog. This dialog lets you convert the two end vertices into a single vertex, or keep the two end vertices separate.
To attach multiple wall objects simultaneously to the selected wall object, click Attach Multiple on the Modify panel to open the Attach Multiple dialog. This works the same as the , except that it shows only wall objects; choose multiple walls to attach, and then click the Attach button.