Animation menu Constraints Attachment
The Attachment constraint
is a position constraint that attaches an object's position to a
face on another object (the target object doesn't have to be a mesh,
but must be convertible to a mesh).
keep the cylinders on the surface.
By keying different attachments
over time, you can animate the position of an object over the irregular
surface of another object, even if that surface is changing over
Example: To attach
a cone to a bending cylinder:
- In the Perspective viewport, create a
cylinder with a radius of 20, a height
of 30, and 10 height segments.
- In the Perspective viewport, create a
cone with a radius 1 of 15, a radius 2 of 5,
and a height of 30.
the cylinder, apply a Bend modifier, and set the bend angle to –70 degrees.
- Turn on (Auto
Key), go to frame 100, and set the bend angle to 70 degrees.
The cylinder bends from
one direction to the other over 100 frames.
- Turn off (Auto
To assign the Attachment constraint and adjust the cone:
- On the Motion panel, open the Assign
Controller rollout, click the Position track, click (Assign Controller), and choose
The cone moves to the
origin of the scene, and the Attachment Parameters rollout is displayed.
- Click the Pick object, and then click
The name of the cylinder
is displayed above the Pick Object button.
- Go to frame 0. Orbit the Perspective
viewport so you can see the top surface of the cylinder.
- Click Set Position, and click and drag
over the faces on the top surface of the cylinder.
The cone jumps to the
top of the cylinder. As you drag the mouse, it jumps to whichever
face you drag over.
- Release the mouse when the cone is on
the top surface of the cylinder.
To adjust the position of the cone relative to the face:
- Drag in the face display window to position
the red x relative to the triangle representing the face. (Because
of the radial arrangement of cap faces in a cylinder, the upper-left
corner of the displayed triangle is the center of the cylinder cap.
You can turn off Edges Only for the cylinder to see this.)
- Adjust the A and B spinners to move the
cone across the surface of the face.
- Drag the time slider to various frames.
As the cylinder bends
back and forth, the cone remains attached to its upper surface.
Continue adjusting the A and B spinners and dragging in the face
display window to adjust the cone's position.
- Remember the number in the Face spinner,
and then lower the spinner value until the cone leaves the cylinder
cap and begins jumping around various areas of the cylinder.
The Face spinner specifies
which face the cone is attached to. As you change its values, the
cone moves to different faces on the cylinder.
- Re-enter the original value in the Face
spinner to return the cone to the top of the cylinder.
The cylinder bends back
and forth with a cone attached to its upper cap.
Parameters for this constraint
are available on the Motion panel after the controller has been
Attach To group
- Object Name text
Specifies the target
object to which the source object is attached.
- Pick Object
Selects and picks the target
object in the viewports for the attachment.
- Align to Surface
Fixes the orientation
of the attached object to the face where it's assigned. When this
is turned off, the orientation of the attached object is not affected by
the orientation of the face on the target object.
- Manual Update
Key Info group
- Current Key
Displays the current
key number and lets you move to another key.
Displays the current frame,
and lets you move the current key to a different frame.
Provides the index of
the face to which the object is attached. Range=0 to 268435455.
Contains the barycentric coordinates
defining the position of the attached object on the face. Range=-999,999
- (display window)
Shows the position of
the source object within the attachment face. You can drag within
this window to adjust the position of the object relative to the face.
- Set Position
Adjusts the placement
of the source object on the target object. Drag over the target
object to specify a face and a position within the face. The source
object moves accordingly over the target object.
All of the items in this
group are the same as in other
controllers. The orientation of the source
object is also interpolated and affected by these settings.
- Ease To
- Ease From