Parameter Curve Out-of-Range Types
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Track View Curve Editor Curves toolbar (Parameter Curve Out-of-Range Types)

Track View Curve Editor Controller menu Out-of-Range Types

With Parameter Curve Out-of-Range Types you can specify how an object is to behave outside the range of the keys you've defined.

Use Parameters Curve Out-of-Range Types to create loops and cycles. The idea is to create a short pattern of keys that produce an animated effect, and then loop or cycle through those keys throughout the animation.

Using the Parameter Curve Out-of-Range Types dialog, you select from four ways for repeating your animation and two ways for applying a linear value.

TipUse the Create Out of Range Keys utility, found in Track View Utilities, to turn the parameter out-of-range animation into editable keyframes.

Typical Steps for Using Parameter Out-of-Range Types

  1. Animate an object to loop or cycle.
  2. In the Curve Editor select the track you want to loop.
  3. Click (Parameter Curve Out-Of-Range Types) to select how your animation behaves outside the time covered by the range bar.
  4. In the dialog, choose which kind of out-of-range type you want, then close the dialog and play the animation. The Curve editor will display the loop or cycle with a dotted line.
    TipYou can create keys from the out of range type by using the Track View Utilities Create Out of Range Keys.


Example: To use Parameter Out-of-Range Types to create a loop:

  1. On the left side of the Front viewport, create a Box primitive.
  2. Turn on (Auto Key) and drag the time slider to frame 10.
  3. Move the box to the right side of the Front viewport.
  4. Open Track View, right-click (Filters), and then select Animated Tracks Only.
  5. In the Track View Hierarchy, choose the Position track for the box, and then click (Parameter Curve Out-Of-Range Types).
  6. In the Parameter Curve Out-of-Range Types dialog, select Ping Pong for both the in and out types and then click OK.
  7. In the viewport controls, click (Play Animation).

    The box moves back and forth repeatedly.

    While the animation is playing, experiment by adjusting the keys in the Curve Editor, or in the Dope Sheet.


Select from the options for repeating your animation and options for applying a linear value.


Holds the value of the end key of the range for all frames. Use constant when you want no animated effect before the first key of the range or after the last key. Constant is the default out-of-range type.


Repeats the same animation as within the range. If the first and last keys in the range have different values, the animation will show an abrupt "jump" from the last key to the first. Use Cycle when you want an animation to repeat, but do not need the ends to match.


Repeats the same animation as within the range, but interpolates between the last key and first key in the range to create a smooth loop. If the first and last key are both at the extreme ends of the range, Loop will behave exactly like Cycle. If you use Position Ranges to extend the range bar beyond the keys, the added length determines the amount of time used to interpolate between the last key and the first key. Use loop with an extended range bar to produce smoothly repeating animation.

Ping Pong

Alternates between a forward and backward repeat of the animation within the range. Use Ping Pong when you want your animation to alternate back and forth.


Projects the animation value along a line tangent to the function curve at the end of the range. Use Linear when you want the animation to enter and leave the range at a constant velocity.

Relative Repeat

Repeats the same animation as within the range but offsets each repetition by the value at the end of the range. Use Relative Repeat to create animations that build on each other as they repeat.